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(和訳はこっち)

I was celebrating Victoria Day last weekend at the beach with a few friends, discussing the anticipated fireworks show that was to come that evening, when I said “our tax dollars paid for the fireworks” in Japanese. My friends understood what I meant, but said that it *has* to be recast in the passive (or active with a null subject). Why?? What’s going on??

So there’s this little thing in semantics called metonymy, where a word is used to represent another word. A popular example is “I read Shakespeare”, where it’s understood that what’s being read is the works of Shakespeare, rather than the decaying corpse of the Bard. Metonymy comes in various forms such as container-for-contained (e.g. “the White House” for the civ. servants that work in the White House; “dishes” for the food on the dishes, etc.); tool-for-work/accomplishment (e.g. “hand” for “throwing ability”; “pen” for “writing style”, etc.); part-for-whole (e.g. “wheels” for “a car”; “head” for “person” (when counting), etc.), etc.

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私は(殆ど)毎週の土曜日に、うちの大学で和英会話サークルがあって、1時間が英語で、1時間が日本語の会話して、そうするとカナダ人も日本人も互いにいい勉強になりあいます。そして、自己紹介する時、私は仕方がなくて自分の専攻が「言語学」と言い出します。それからは問題です。言語学に関する者はもう詳しいだろうが、詳しくない方が必ず「じゃ、何語を勉強していますか?」と訊ねてくれます。

相手が言語学と語学の違いが解っても、何故か解らないけど、絶対に一つ言語しか勉強していないと思ってしまう。これが常識の問題か、日本と北米州の大学の違う構造か、私には解りません。(知っている方が是非教えて下さい!)

で、結局、言語学は何ですか?簡単に言えば、言語を解析する道具です。若しくは言語の科学です。そうみると、「何語の勉強ですか」は既に無意味になる。それはまるで、「専攻が音楽」と言った者に「じゃ、どの曲の勉強ですか」みたいな質問。確かに、音楽は専門的区別があるでしょう。ジャンル専門とか、作曲家専門とか、民族音楽専門とか。でも、本当は和声とか、楽章の順番とかの基礎で、一曲の勉強しているわけでもないですね。同様に、言語学は一つ言語の勉強じゃなくて、どんな言語でもある体制・構造の勉強です。[1]

それに、ある言語の語学専攻で言語学っぽい規則が教わっても、裏の原因と理由が教われなくて、現実の現象だけでしょう。一方、例の原因・裏面を解決・理解するための研究は言語学です。

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As a linguist, meeting a native speaker of a language you’re studying is a pretty exciting event. Maybe it’s just me, but I find that I often have to do a delicate balancing act between “I’m a freakish nerd of your language, which probably implies I want to be one of you, since I’m clearly not from your ethno-cultural group” and “I know nothing and have a general interest in your language.” If I don’t start with a “power introduction” (wherein I detail my research interests and years of experience with their language), I get the slow-and-loud reception. “how. are. YOU. doing?” Thanks, mate. I’m gonna go over here now.

勉強している言語の母国語話者に会えることは言語学者の私には幸いな行いだ。私だけの意見かもしれないが、そういう場合に、よく、「明らかにあなたと同じ民族人種じゃなくてもあたなの国語オタク」と「全く何も経験したこともないが何故かあたなの文化に興味がある初学者」という二つ極度に見られないように自己紹介しなければならない。強い第一印象で始まらなかったら、遅くて大声の反応をやってくる。「オ・ゲ・ン・キ・デ・ス・カ?」って。いいんだよ、別に。こっちに行くから。

On the other hand, if I start off too strong, my interlocutor won’t be able to relate. After all, what’re the odds that a language learner is also a linguist? So I have to carefully reign it in, to something that the general language learner/speaker can relate to, while still covertly inducting them into certain linguistic aspects.

一方、強すぎて始まったら、我が聞き手はもう愛想できなくなる。だって、語学する者の中に、何割は言語学者?だからといって、そんなに深い言語学論に踏まずに、微かにある言語学点に紹介しならが聞き手も解りやすい話題で始まります。

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This is a bit of a second take on my original insight on double referents. I’m also going to change gears slightly by introducing two related-but-not-immediately-intuitive concepts, so I hope my dear readers will bear with me as you patiently wade through my confusion of jargon and pseudo-logic.

So I’m gonna start by explaining how these constructions work syntactically (at least, so far as my middling understanding can take it), and follow it up by why this type of error is so exciting. As a sort of refresher and motivation to work through this post, I was looking at the construction and deconstruction of the error generated by non-native speakers of English in phrases like (1) and (2).

(1) Your questions are always hard to answer (*it)!

(2) John is easy to please (*him).

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  1. I am a Canadian-born Chinese, who grew up speaking English at school; and Chinese at home.
    私は学校で英語を、家で中国語を話す中華系カナダ人である。
  2. I am a linguistics student with a reasonable command of Japanese.
    私は日本語が結構できる言語学を勉強する生徒である。

When the preceding two facts about myself are learned by my interlocutors, I often get asked what the difference between the three languages are: Chinese, Japanese, and English. They will often go straight to the basic syntax, and assume that’s all there is to discuss. But if one would consult the table below, such an analysis is not so simple.
この僕に関する二つ事実を知ったら、我が聞き手はよく「英語、中国語、と日本語の違いはなんですか?」を僕に聞きます。そして、構文論だけで比べて、それ以上は考えません。だけど、下のテーブルに調べたら、例の三ヶ国語の相違はそんなに簡単に解析できないでしょう。

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Even if you know all the words in the sentence, it doesn’t mean you know what the sentence means. Moreover, even if a grammatically correct translation is attainable, doesn’t mean that it carries the same discoursal value. Such is the curse of polylingualism (by which I mean, “the phenomena of having more than one language in existence”).

So in English, we have this fascinating effect of doubling negatives in order to soften the intent. Wonderfully documented in Laurence R Horn’s The Expression of Negation, Horn notes that the two negatives do not completely cancel each other, and instead end up producing a weaker positive than the original positive statement. Consider:

1. Mary’s happy. Or at least, not unhappy.

2. Bart: Dad, are you licking toads?
Homer: I’m not NOT licking toads…

3. A: I thought you were friends with her?
B: Well, I’m not NOT friends with her…

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In my Sisyphean quest to elevate my Japanese lexicon to a level comparable to my English, I’m forced to delve into regions of vocabulary that are not normally (ie, never) covered in language classes, no matter how advanced the course. I doubt very much, for example, that any non-mathematical student of Japanese would ever learn how to say “the sixth root of sixty-four”, or “different isotopes do not affect molecular structure”. Language classes will mostly cover pedestrian topics (ie, statistically likely domains of conversation), related to family, personal well-being, some basic anatomy (hair, eye, hand; but not spleen, kidney, liver), literature, and some politics and geography. But never math, or astronomy, or physics, or literary analysis, or music theory. I should mention that I’m not blaming language courses for not being exhaustive in covering all conceivable intellectual domains; I’m only lamenting the fact that I personally have not had the pleasure of being formally taught “tech talk” in other languages, and therefore do not possess an intuition for which expressions are natural, and which are formal. In math, for example, the exponent an is technically expressed as “a to the power of n“, but conventionally, we shorten that to “a to the nth power” or more simply “a to the nth“.

So continuing on my quest, I decided to learn the names of the planets in our beloved solar system. And, being the etymological nut that I am, was able to immediately see some interesting facts. But first, the planets:

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Another blog post headed by a flashback to my LING101 class: Apparently the words “perfume” and “fragrance” have been rising and falling on syncopated peaks. The rich will prefer “perfume” and then the lower classes will copy them, and then the rich will switch to “frangrance” to stay ahead. …And then the lower classes will copy them again and use “fragrance”, forcing the rich to switch back to “perfume”. And this flip-flipping has been going on for a few hundred years now. Unfortunately, I forget which one is currently ahead in England, but I’m going to stake a guess with “fragrance”.

This entire process is fascinating to me, even though it clearly doesn’t occur within a generation. For one thing, it’s yet another counter-example to the “golden age” fallacy of language perception (the idea that our current use of language is corrupted from some earlier pristine state). But for another, it also demonstrates that pro- and prescriptive efforts in language use aren’t always entirely effective. English, however, does not have a sole claim to this phenomenon.

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Glossary

COCA - Corpus of Contemporary American English
L1/L2/... - Primary/Secondary Language
NNS - Non-Native Speaker
NS - Native Speaker